Throughout Europe, since the 1970s, citizen engagement in the energy transition has been gaining popularity. The cooperatives that are part of the REScoop.eu federation now bring together no less than one and a half million Europeans.
Cooperatives and other citizen initiatives collectively invest in the production of renewable electricity (for example, via wind turbines and photovoltaic panels). They organize collective self-consumption (and electricity sharing) at all levels: from a single building to the national market and they engage in actions in all energy sectors.
Numerous research articles point to the added value of energy cooperatives, which are included in the narrative paper.